A Short Background on Fracking
Invented in the year 1947 by Floyd Farris of Stanolind Oil and Gas Corporation, fracking or scientifically known as hydraulic fracturing (also known as hydrofracturing, hydrofracking or fraccing) is a procedure devised to recover gas and oil from shale rock. It is a well-stimulation method where rock is fractured by a hydraulically pressurized liquid usually made up of sand and chemicals suspended in water. It involves securely tapping shale and other tight-rock structures by drilling a mile or more underneath the surface prior to slowly turning horizontal and continuing some thousand feet further. One site can contain numerous drilled wells.
The well is cased and cemented and small punctures are made in the horizontal portion of the tube where a typical combination of 90% water, 9.5% sand and 0.5% additives is pumped at high pressure to produce micro-fractures in the rocks. When the hydraulic pressure is taken out from the well, granules of hydraulic fracturing proppants either sand or aluminum oxide holds the fractures open. Additives play certain roles in this process, including aiding to decrease friction, in so doing lessening the amount of pumping pressure from diesel-controlled sources, which in effect trim down air emissions and prevent pipe corrosion, in turn help shield the environment and enhance well efficiency.
This high-pressure fluid injected into the wells creates cracks in these deep-rock formations through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine flow more without restraint.
In the present day, the combination of advanced hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling utilizing revolutionary technologies accounts for escalating oil and natural gas production in the U.S and pulled down prices of gas.